布鲁纳 ( Bruner )美国心理学家和教育家说：
Although Jerome Bruner is different than Jean Piaget, he also has three "modes of representation" ("Jerome Bruner"): enactive, which is action-based; iconic, which is image-based; and symbolic, which is language-based. However, different from Piaget, he does not keep these modes in defined stages; instead he believes them to be overlapping and loosely chronological. And, starkly different from Piaget, Bruner also believes that anyone at any age can learn many things as long as it is taught to him/her in an age-appropriate manner. Therefore, his main focus is on learning and ones capabilities, and not on what a person can or cannot do at a specific, given timeframe.
Those three modes are in the area of learning and categorizing, but he also believes that there are two primary modes of thought: narrative and paradigmatic. Narrative thought processes are in the form of story-telling, some times similar to a soap opera; and paradigmatic thought is structured and logical.
His overarching theory is that people categorize everything. His understanding is that people interpret everything around them in terms of similarities and differences. Similar to Bloom's Taxonomy, Bruner believes that the brain is simply a system of coding in a "hierarchical arrangement of related categories" ("Jerome Bruner").
"To perceive is to categorize, to conceptualize is to categorize, to learn is to form categories, to make decisions is to categorize."
- Jerome Bruner
"Jerome Bruner." Wikipedia. 2009. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.. Web.28 May 2009.